Monday, August 24, 2020

Berlin Wall Essay Example For Students

Berlin Wall Essay The Berlin Wall isolated the individuals of East Berlin from the individuals in West Berlin. It isolated families, kept individuals from their occupations, and made individuals pass on. It was raised with an end goal to spare East Berlins economy, however at long last it accomplished such a great deal more. The escaping of inhabitants of East Berlin to West Berlin influenced the Soviet Union and East Berlin in two different ways. The first was financial. By 1958, 15% of the number of inhabitants in East Berlin had fled to West Berlin. East Berlins economy gave a lot to the Soviets and among these 15% were specialists, legal advisors, agents, and other fundamental figures for the East Berlin economy. The birth rate in East Berlin was higher than the passing rate, yet at the same time 250,000 individuals were leaving each year. In 1961 alone, 5,000 specialists, 20,000 designers and experts, and 17,000 educators left East Berlin. All together in the years from 1954 through1960, 4,600 specialists, 15,885 instructors, 738 college educators, 15,536 designers and professionals moved from East Berlin to West Berlin. Other than these experts, 11,705 understudies with starting goals of working in East Berlin left to work in West Berlin in the wake of getting their free instruction from East Berli n. This hit East Berlin exceptionally hard, for it required these possible laborers to modify the nation after the pulverization brought about by World War II. Walter Ulbricht, the pioneer of the East German socialist gathering and leader of the Privy Council, was extraordinarily upset by the escaping of East Berlins residents, for it hurt his multi year intend to carry East Berlins economy to a similar level as West Berlins. Walter Ulbricht requested ordinary police spot checks of anybody conveying a bag, however this scarcely had any effect on the quantity of East Berlin residents escaping. Residents making numerous outings with almost no things without a moment's delay effectively dodged them. Ulbricht made a decent attempt to persuade Soviet Union to assume control over West Berlin, however the Soviet Union needed to keep harmony with westerners. At last, the Soviet chief, Stalin, sponsored Ulbricht and proclaimed that West Berlin must be transformed into a free city in a half y ear. The Western forces didn't conform to these requests and Stalin, following a half year, did nothing in reprisal for being disregarded. During the a half year that Stalin discussed, the residents of East Berlin dreaded their time was running short to escape to West Berlin, so in those a half year, a bigger number of individuals fled than had recently been escaping. Walter Ulbrichts seven-year economy plan constrained ranchers to share their territory, which upset ranchers and made them escape to West Berlin. Additionally, Ulbricht put such a great amount of focus on assembly line laborers to increment modern yield, that numerous assembly line laborers fled to West Berlin to get away from it. This clearly agitated Ulbricht and he had the option to persuade the Soviet Union that the best way to stop the mass escaping of East Berlins residents was to utilize power. Ulbricht had before guaranteed There are individuals in West Germany who need us to prepare the development laborers of the GDR or manufacture a divider. I am not mindful of any such plans. Nobody has the aim of developing a divider. Ulbricht at last adjusted his perspective. From July 17 until August 2, 1945, a gathering was held by the triumphant forces that had crushed Germany. Truman, Churchill and Stalin met at Cecilienhof mansion in Potsdam close to Berlin. The Potsdam understanding was set up, which decided the state of post war Europe. The Berlin divider went up in the evening of August 13, 1961, while a great many people were resting. By the night of the next morning the greater part of the primary period of the development of the divider was finished and the fringe between West Berlin and East Berlin was shut. The first components and enormous square squares were first utilized on August 15, 1961. It was totally up inside a month. On the West Berlin side of the divider, there were 90 checkpoints on the 45-kilometer outskirt, which is 2 checkpoints each kilometer. On the East side of the di vider, there were 78 checkpoints. A subsequent form was included expansion to the first form to forestall getting away in June 1962. These initial two ages were in the end supplanted by a third era in 1965, which itself was supplanted by a fourth era, named Stutzwandelement UL, in 1975, which went on until the divider was torn down for all time. A solitary fragment of the fourth era divider was11.81 feet high, 3.937 feet wide, weighed 2,750 kilograms, and sold for 359 East German imprints for each section. There were around 45,000 of these portions in the Berlin divider and wound up costing 16 million East German imprints. (Note: at the time a portion of bread was 1.04 imprints.) From July 17 until August 2, 1945, a meeting was held by the triumphant forces that had crushed Germany. Truman, Churchill and Stalin met at Cecilienhof palace in Potsdam close to Berlin. The Potsdam understanding was built up, which decided the state of post war Europe. On the morning of June 17, 1953, num erous residents arose to radio news that laborers in East Berlin were revolting in the boulevards. It before long heightened and not long before early afternoon, they were walking through the Brandenburg Gate with the intension to unite with laborers in West Berlin. Be that as it may, everything reached a speedy conclusion when Russian tanks drew up and terminated into the unarmed group. American soldiers and British soldiers made a demonstration of power with tanks and troops, however they didn't mediate. Decades passed, be that as it may, and the battle for opportunity didn't debilitate. Every so often, somebody attempted to break through toward the west. Just a couple of made it, and on the whole, 70 individuals lost their lives attempting to get to the opposite side. In the mid 1980s there was an adjustment in east-west relations. The freeze of the virus war began to defrost. Ursula Dixon, a resident who encountered the fall of the Berlin divider direct. Mikhail Gorbachev turned into the new pioneer in the Soviet Union, and voiced his supposition about the requirement for reproduction of his own nation and the world as a rule. It is difficult to change the methodologies on which East-West relations have been worked for a long time. In any case, the new is thumping on each entryway and window. - Gorbachev. On October 8, 1989, a gathering of peaceful objector held a flame light vigil in a congregation in the city of Leipzig. Thousands rampaged yelling, No more viciousness! what's more, Join us, Join us! An ever increasing number of individuals were participate as the sounds reverberated through each road. By October 16, the quantity of dissenters had arrived at millions. Amplifiers could be heard all through the city, says Dixon. The dissenters expressions of resistance were as per the following: We have worked like a dog for this nation, and we are not holding on to see everything fall into ruins. Reality has become visible. A country that can't keep their young at home has no future. We, the individuals, Demand:1.)The option to free access of data. Tony Robbins Case EssayChoosing the site for the capital of Germany was a warmed issue that was bantered the nation over. The discussion was revolved around the subject of keeping the legislature in Bonn, the temporary capital, or to move back to Berlin, the previous capital. The chancellor, the Bundestag, and key authorities would make the transition to Berlin while a huge number of lesser authorities would keep on overseeing from Bonn. At last, in the year 2000, Berlin turned into the capital of Germany for good. Different issues, for example, premature birth, which was exceptionally liberal in East Germany and requests for instructive change, were brought to the administration. In answer to the logical inconsistency among East and West Germany, the bundestag at last passed a trade off bill, extricating the law to permit more premature births, while as yet keeping certain limitations. The requests for instructive change were not as fast replied as the requests of the easterners abo ut fetus removal. Western schools, completely filled before reunification, were packed with easterners searching for better instruction. The nation truly required cash to set up new instruction and preparing programs for new educators. Kohls government had the option to put aside DM 7 billion to meet the most dire needs. As the Germans had various points of view toward various issues, they had developed to feel more contrastingly towards one another than they did when the divider previously descended. The snags were more than financial and policy driven issues. In the course of recent years, numerous distinctions had created between the two nations. Numerous easterners were caught off guard for a real existence in a free society. The westerners were a cutting edge and quick paced society, while then again the easterners were a very long time behind the West. Westerners were worn out on the easterners who continually whimpered about their difficulty and never really transform them. They felt that if reunification somehow managed to succeed, it would be a direct result of their western help, western creativity, and western cash. Easterners grumbled that the westerners were very self-important on the grounds that they had such a lot of cash and would come to East Germany to buy products since everything is less expensive there. They felt that the westerners were possessive and seen themselves as better than the easterners. Eastern Germans had never imagined that reunification would bring this numerous distinctions and division. This left them frustrated similarly as opportunity itself. Living in a popular government was not as joyful as they had envisioned. Still the easterners battled, yet some eastern-arranged political gatherings picked up help. The contradictions would at present remain until the two sides overlooked probably a portion of their disparities. Reunification would not be finished until more Germans met up and recollected that they had once been accomplices in making a fantasy materialize. Notwithstanding proceeded with strain, specialists foresee that the German individuals will succeed. As confirmation, numerous easterners have embraced the western proverb: try sincerely and assemble the advantages later. Rather than grumbling, residents are trying sincerely and reconstructing their lives. Numerous westerners have discovered that the higher duties have not so much changed

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Chivalry??. . . . . . . . . Today?? :: essays research papers

Gallantry is typically known as an ethical framework or a respect code. It started in the twelfth century when rulers administered the nation, as a code to make harmony. Presently there is no lord or sovereign government, presently there’s that superb thing that we call the Government. If you somehow managed to inquire as to whether gallantry existed today I’d need to state that there are a few models, however there sure aren’t the same number of as there used to be. Back in when King Arthur controlled a ton of the individuals were faithful to their ruler and their nation. Presently our great wrongdoing, bigotry, and detest vanquish all frameworks. A few different ways that you may have the option to state that gallantry despite everything is around is maybe clubs, for example, ball groups or baseball crews. The groups just as the fans have incredible unwaveringness to their group. The fans will trust that days will get tickets for the major event. Individuals pay to see battles on Pay-Per-View. What's more, on the off chance that you ever go to a Hawks game I’ll promise you that their fans will â€Å"tell off† anybody that is saying anything terrible regarding their cherished group!      Also another way that you would see valor today is in corporate organizations. For instance, I work or 21st Century Telecom Inc. I do Technical Support. Anything that turns out badly with your Internet get to or your email gadgets, will be fixed by me. We are in a corporate zone, State and VanBuren, and when we have gatherings about things that nobody can tell the media, or different organizations, for example, mergers or unique occasions. It appears that nobody ever says anything negative. We are committed to our activity and some of the time you will get one of our Administrators dozing here over-night. Presently if that isn’t commitment to your activity, I don’t recognize what is!      Another way that you could discover gallantry today would be all the Unions. Chicago Unions have a lot of dedicated people in a wide range of exchanges. They are faithful and pleased (the greater part of them!) of their work that they have done. At that point you get the individuals that simply need their check. Those are the sorts that truly don’t show a lot of devotion or contribute a lot to their activity.      Some ways that you could state that there isn't generally gallantry in today’s society is the gradually crumbling church.

Friday, July 24, 2020

Rambling in the London Library

Rambling in the London Library Since I moved to London, I have been hearing quiet tales of the London Library. Nestled in the heart of a leafy square just a few streets from the bustle of Piccadilly Circus, the library hosts a million books, the overwhelming majority in the stacks and shelves that bear the weight of the hefty collection. It’s been a dream of mine to join for quite some time, but my persuasive introversion concerned me. What if I couldn’t work out how to check out books? What if I looked like a total dope wandering the aisles? What if, wait for it, I broke something, or got lost, and everyone looked me like I’m some sort of tragedy? Anxiety is hard, and that means doing new things is hard too. The other thing that set me to pause was the cost. The London Library is a private charity, so it’s sustained by the fees of its members. There’s a definite air of elitism about a library that’s not open access, but there’s a spreading dearth of even public libraries now. In my view, spending my money to maintain a brilliant resource that offers me a silent and inspiring working space is a fair deal. Not everyone can wander into the Library, but its collection is safe and protected for generations to come. I can’t know what the future holds, but at least I do know I’m trying my best to protect an immense resource. Last year I started writing my first novel and have been working on personal essays along the way with great input from my MA group at Birkbeck, University of London. Birkbeck of course has a library, and I’ve been in plenty of libraries around London. But the London Library kept calling, and eventually I booked a tour to see if it was really as delicious as it looked. Reader, it was. I made my way across Leicester Square and down Haymarket to the library on a sunny Wednesday afternoon to spend my lunch hour on a free tour before making any decisions. I stopped at reception to sign in for the delight ahead, and waited just a few minutes before a member of staff came to find me and lead me through the labyrinth. We started by walking through the main hall and entered the back stacks, floor after floor of narrow walkways and towering shelves, chock a block with books of every description, all carefully labelled and sectioned according to the library’s own filing system. I had asked to see books about bees on my trip, and was led directly to a lovely collection going back centuries. The flooring in the back stacks is grated, so with a quick look down you can see the floors beneath you- a somewhat exhilarating experience that might freak some people out. Me, all I could think of was how many books were beneath me, and how many more above. After the back stacks we moved into the centre part of the library at St James Building, to see the Reading Room (where even laptops are disallowed), with its ceiling height cases full of pages, and then to the Writers Room, with its hardy desks, golden lamps and giant window. I recall some elevator and stair magic and then saw the Members room on the top floor, with its places for phone calls and café for snacks, then down into the Central Stacks, six floors of endless routes through topics including Biography and Religion. At the bottom, we emerged near the Art Room, flooded with light and full of books and manuscripts that have absolutely no meaning to me as an art philistine, but there was no denying the peace and inspiration of the space. I finished my tour in the issue hall, my decision already made. Though I’ve joined the library only in the last month, and I’m still getting used to the place (and yes, getting lost) as well as occasionally turning a corner and finding something new that I didn’t know was there at all. The London Library is like the Narnia of books, where even dark corners hide big secrets. Rioters, what are your favourite libraries, and where are they?

Friday, May 22, 2020

Analysis Of Medea And All My Sons - 1974 Words

The literary pieces that I chose for my Final Project, I am the classic play written by Euripides, Medea by Euripides constructed in 431 B.C. and All My Sons written by Arthur Miller in 1947. The propose of this paper is to analyze the classical work of Medea and the contemporary work, All My Sons, for their particular storytelling components, themes and the assessment and narrative choices that the authors utilized as it connects to the literary convention of their time period. In addition, I will discuss the likenesses and differences of these two plays with respects to characterization, narrative choices, themes, and literary conventions. CLASSIC WORK Medea of Euripides is an ancient Greek tragedy drama play written by Euripides,†¦show more content†¦She was a powerful and dynamic character in a time when strong women were not depicted in Greek culture. Medea was an unconventional woman in ancient Greek times, and it was uncharacteristic for females in Athenian society to be a heroine and focal point. Medea, the protagonist, was the daughter of Aeetes of Colchis, she was driven by passion and committed horrendous crimes for the love of Jason. Euripides characters are a relatively flat character, and they do not change dramatically throughout the play. The character Medea is cynical, wicked, scheming and unlike any other heroine in ancient times, she blames Jason for her predicament and seeks out revenge against everything that he loved. The opening act takes place in the setting outside of Jason and Medea home in Corinth, Medea standing outside irradiates to the Chorus how Jason victimized her and deserted the family. Like other plays in Greek history, the play included The Chorus which was comprised of the women from Corinth; the there role was to converse with Medea and evoke sympathy for her character. The Nurse, Chorus, and Medea give a history of Medea and Jason’s relationship, and the inciting incidence begins. Medea describes how she is distraught and shattered because she sacrificed everything for Jason, yet he is leaving her and their two sons to marry Glauce. Being exiled from Corinth, Medea persuades Creon the King to letShow MoreRelatedMedea Plot Analysis1392 Words   |  6 PagesMedea is an ancient Greek tragedy play written by Euripides. The play bases itself on the ancient myth of Jason and Medea. The plays plot centers itself on the actions of Medea who was the Barbarians former prince who seeks revenge against Jason who betrayed her with another woman. Considered as one the best work produced by Euripides, the play has earned the writer several awards including the Dionysian festival awards in 431BCE (Williamson 1) Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discussRead More Contrasting Gender Differences in in Medea versus Wide Sargasso Sea1722 Words   |   7 PagesGender Differences in in Medea versus Wide Sargasso Sea Stereotypical attributes traditionally associated with women, such as having a propensity to madness, or being irrational, frivolous, dependent, decorative, subordinate, scheming, manipulative, weak, jealous, gossiping, vulnerable and deceitful were common in the times relevant to both works, i.e. Ancient Greece and in the 19th and early 20th Century. Masculine attributes in Euripides time were more along the lines of being valiant, heroicRead MoreThe Tragic Women Of Tragedy985 Words   |  4 Pagescharacterize women as unstable and dangerous. Agave, Antigone, and Medea are all undoubtedly the driving force behind the tragic action in these plays. It is their choices that lead to the pain and death of the people around them. Through an examination of the evidence from three separate works, Antigone, The Bacchae, and The Medea, the role of women in ancient Greek tragedy becomes clear. The actions of Agave, Antigone, and Medea repeatedly prove their characters instability and danger. Agave inRead MoreSatire in the Tragedies of Euripides1443 Words   |  6 Pagesinterpretation of Euripides satire is not inclusive, there is many examples of it throughout his plays. The focus of this analysis is limited to only a handful of the 18 or 19 plays of Euripides that survive today, and is limited to correctly interpreting the ideas and understanding how they correlated to satire. Appropriately, I think the first look at Euripides brand of satire should be from Medea as translated by John Davie. It is important to understand that this play is being interpreted, because this wasRead More Importance of the Tutor in Electra1623 Words   |  7 Pagesgeometrically they form a nearly perfect spread from beginning to middle to end. With each of these appearances the Tutor sets in motion some critical aspect of the plot, thus making himself an agent of another of Aristotles notions: But most important of all is the structure of the incidents. For Tragedy is an imitation, not of men, but of an action and of life, and life consists in action. The Tutor truly drives the action of this play, functioning as a glue to hold the plot together and as a catalystRead MoreEssay on Analysis of Aeschylus Agamemnon4499 Words   |  18 PagesAnalysis of Aeschylus Agamemnon Characters- The Watchman Clytaemnestra The Herald Agamemnon Cassandra Aegisthus The Chorus 1). The Watchman: †¢ The watchman sets the time and place for the play (Agamemnon’s palace in Argos, the house of Atreus); he describes the many miserable nights he has spent on the rooftop of the palace watching for the signal fires that will herald the fall of Troy. †¢ The watchman is one Aeschylus’s small characters, but like the herald he serves anRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s The Tempest 2603 Words   |  11 PagesMeasuring a Life in a Drama When many people think of William Shakespeare, they think of plays like Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth or Hamlet. One of the most influential plays written by Shakespeare is not one listed above. The play that reflects the life and all of Shakespeare?s plays is The Tempest. This work was and still is influential in both America, Britain and around the world. Although William Shakespeare was an influential writer in American and British literature, The Tempest reaches beyond a comparisonRead MoreCleanth Brookss Essay Irony as a Principle of Structure9125 Words   |  37 Pagespremises and implications. It will in any case be obvious to the reader that the present writer upholds the validity of their content. Secondly, a detailed analysis of Rosa Luxemburg’s thought is necessary because its seminal discoveries no less than its errors have had a decisive influence on the theories of Marxists outside Russia, above all in Germany. To some extent this influence persists to this day. For anyone whose interest was first aroused by these problems a truly revolutionary, Communist

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Rise Of The 19th Century - 1210 Words

France in the late 1700 s was based on a feudal system where they were divided into estates based on their birth. The king was at the top of the absolute monarchy and did not have to consult with anyone to pass a law. He had complete control over the country and could do things such as kill someone for no reason. This did not go well with most people and especially people of the Third Estate. Privileges were very common amongst the First Estate. One very famous privilege was being exempt for the Taille-the major tax in France at the time. The First Estate was made up of the Clergy and they were the richest and had the most power. The Second Estate was made up of the nobles who were also wealthy and held high positions in the French†¦show more content†¦During the years of 1787 and 1789, the hatred increased. With two years of bad harvest, the price of wheat doubled which increased the price of the peasant food, bread, immensely. A new movement called the Enlightenment became popular in France. Writers such as Voltaire and Rousseau encouraged people to question the world that they live in. Thoughts of the right of kings and being part of an unfair society were brought into consideration. To make everything worse, after realizing that France was practically bankrupt, Louis calls together a meeting with the Estates General. In this meeting he believes he would have no problem in trying to raise taxes in only the Third Estate. This was the sad truth for the Third Estate because the Estates General only had one representative from each estate, which meant that they were outnumbered by the First and Second Estates. They finally broke off from the Estates General and formed the National Assembly. Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, most commonly known as Abbey Sieyes was born on May 3, 1748 in Frejus, France and died in Paris on June 20, 1836. His concept of popular popular sovereignty guided the National Assembly in its struggle against the king and the nobility during the beginning of the French Revolution. Later on, in 1799, he was part of organizing the famous coup d à ©tat that over through Louis XVI and brought Napoleon Bonaparte to power. Sieyes was educated and rose in the church to become vicar general in 1780 and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Aging A Natural Process and New Stage of Life Free Essays

Death: And They Bade Goodbye Loss is a usual incident in human existence (Becker, page 9). It primarily incites high prominence in both personal and social responses. Through scientific approaches, awareness to the complexity and influence of loss to humans’ acclimatization and collective responses has come to pass in the 20th century. We will write a custom essay sample on Aging: A Natural Process and New Stage of Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now Development of grief therapy and grief counselling was contributed by the clinical needs of people struggling with various losses. Preventive psychiatry was originated by numerous crisis-intervention programs and teams. Crisis teams were pulled together to manage disaster situations and suicide-prevention programs were recognized in many communities. Mutual-help groups were started to work in response to increasing demands for strengthening those who have lost their loved ones. Reception of loss and bereavement is a serious human problem. Deteriorating Function: Body Weakens Persons with rational and progress disability persistently face hindrances in accessing services in community. As they become old and be on their late years, they are at great risk for functional decline. Some studies have demonstrated that older adults suffered from being apprehensive about their health status (Williams and Nussbaum, page 143). They are so much worried that deterioration of physical functioning and illnesses might brought them little space in the society and might render them unable to live independently. In addition, after serious illnesses like heart disease, stroke, and fracture, anxiety disorders often appear. Advanced practice nurses acknowledged a number of active health-related predicaments for aging people with an intellectual and developmental immobilization that had latent consequences on function and survival. Reduced Income: Smaller Penny Retirement and subsequent change of financial situation made many elderly worried about their lives. Economic downturn in recent years augmented their concern about the employment and income of their adult children. The only intervention to remedy this situation is to secure the elders about their needs. Social World: Closing Doors Nursing intervention may prevent or ameliorate some functional decline. Social decline may sometimes happen progressively and is not reversible. This deterioration often goes together with illnesses like chronic and terminal disease states such as Parkinson’s disease, dementia, degenerative joint disease, cancer, and heart failure. Social status is influenced as physiological aging changes and as adaptation to the physical environment transform. Acceptance of the social world to elders is a contingent and it involves proper motivation (Thomas, page 349). Additional impediment of social decline comprises incontinence, loss of independence, decreased socialization falls, malnutrition, and increased risk for long-term institutionalization and depression. Nurses have been foremost players in confronting the challenges of taking care of older adults over the past 50 years. Defeating new challenges of the 21st century will require nurses to move beyond the conventional ways of thinking about old aged. Advancement in national and international programs that gears towards meeting the human needs, including large numbers of people will require new perspectives on giving care and new forms of leadership in interdisciplinary efforts to help old persons in all parts of the world be as comfortable and healthy as can be as they cherished every moment of their latter years. How to cite Aging: A Natural Process and New Stage of Life, Essays

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Role of Christianity in the Restoration and Remaking of State Power Essay Example Essay Example

The Role of Christianity in the Restoration and Remaking of State Power Essay Example Paper The Role of Christianity in the Restoration and Remaking of State Power Essay Introduction The last centuries of the Roman Empire was marked with chaos and bloodshed. Rival claimants to the imperial throne constantly waged war with one another, disrupting all aspects of Roman life in the process. Barbaric tribes from neighboring regions took advantage of this situation by invading the countryside, stealing crops and livestock, burning entire towns to the ground and killing or enslaving Roman peasants. In the cities, ambitious praetorians and senators often led rebellions, paralyzing economic activity as a result.The tragic end of the Roman Empire eroded confidence in human reason and shattered the hope of attaining happiness in this world. Desperate, impoverished and fearful for their lives, people during this period were searching for an escape from the oppression that they were experiencing. This need, in turn, prompted the evolution and expansion of Christianity. Christianity’s otherworldliness and promise of personal immortality gave a spiritually disillusioned Greco-Roman world a reason to continue living. Furthermore, the triumph of Christianity in the Greco-Roman world marked the end of classical antiquity and the beginning of the medieval period (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 171).A Palestinian Jew named Jesus Christ (4 BC-29 AD) was the founder of Christianity. Prior to his ministry, most Palestinian Jews were followers of Judaism, a religion that was based on Mosaic Law (Torah). Apart from religious rituals, Judaism was also composed of many laws that governed daily life. Christ himself was taught Jewish religious-ethical thought in his formative years (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 174).Christ, however, was distressed over the manner in which Jewish leaders implemented the teachings of Judaism. He felt that their focus â€Å"shifted from prophetic values to obedience to rules and prohibitions regulating the smallest details of daily life† (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 174). For Christ, detailed regulatio ns governing everyday activities dealt only with a person’s visible behavior but not with his or her inner being. Such a superficial manner of enforcing Jewish law produced individuals who mechanically followed rules and prohibitions but whose hearts remained impure (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 174). He believed that true morality meant doing away with vices such as fornication, adultery, murder and avarice.The Jewish scribes and priests, as a result, viewed Christ as a threat to ancient traditions and to their authority over the Jews. The Romans, meanwhile, regarded him as a political agitator who would incite a rebellion against Rome (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 175). Jewish leaders therefore had him arrested for high treason and turned him over to Pontius Pilate, who sentenced him to death by crucifixion. But Christ underwent resurrection three days after his demise and later ascended into heaven. His followers then traveled to various parts of the world in order to spread his teachings.The early years of Christianity were not easy for its followers. Christians during the Roman Empire, for instance, were brutally persecuted because they were seen as â€Å"subversives (who) preached allegiance to God and not to Rome† (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 180). They were imprisoned, beaten, starved, burned alive, crucified and torn apart by wild animals in the arena for the amusement of the Roman public (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 181). In order to escape harassment, Christians clandestinely met and held worship services in venues such as catacombs.But Christianity’s aforementioned situation was reversed with the fall of the Roman Empire. The appeal of Christianity was based mainly on the common knowledge that religion is more capable of stirring human hearts than reason. The Roman Empire’s staunch belief in science and philosophy did not save it from total destruction. Neither was it able to provide com forting solutions to the existential problems of life and death (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 178). Christianity, in sharp contrast, gave the assurance that all earthly torments were â€Å"the will of God† – God made human beings undergo suffering in order to test their faithfulness to him.As Christianity became increasingly popular among the Romans, emperors realized that crushing the religion through persecution was already futile. They instead decided to obtain the support of the empire’s Christian population. Constantine, for instance, issued in 313 AD the Edict of Milan – a law that granted toleration to Christians. This directive was followed by other legislations which was favorable to the church – Theodosius I had made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire and outlawed the worship of pagan gods by 392 AD (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 181).It would be fair to say that these laws transformed Christianity into an apparatus for the restoration and remaking of state power. Fanatic clergy took advantage of their newly-empowered status by persuading Roman emperors to issue decrees that persecuted pagans, Jews and Christians with unorthodox views. Consequently, many followers of pagan cults were fined, imprisoned, tortured and executed. In addition, Christian mobs burned non-Christian writings, destroyed pagan altars and sacred images and squelched pagan rites and festivals (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, Von Laue 181). In the process, the Roman Empire was slowly being replaced with a theocracy – Roman emperors were reduced to puppets that the Christian clergy controlled at the strings.Christianity further gained political clout when it started amassing material wealth. Many wealthy Christians died leaving almost all of their fortune to the church. Some Christian leaders in the 4th century were therefore able to build monasteries or communities of people committed to prayer and asceticism (Hastings 43). Monasteries played a crucial role in the spread of Christianity – they served as training grounds for missionaries. Monasteries were likewise vital to social and economic development, as they established schools and libraries and served as landlords and organizers of economic wealth (McManners 119).The Christian Church, through the monasteries, amassed so much wealth in donated lands, money and priceless church furnishings. Thus, the Christian Church eventually became richer and more powerful than most lay monarchies. The pope, previously a spiritual leader alone, also became a temporal power in the process (Bausch, Cannon and Obach 120). By the 9th century, the Christian Church was already powerful enough to establish its own empire – Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800 (MSN Encarta n. pag.).The Middle Ages was characterized with constant power struggles between the pope and the monarchs. In 1075, for instance, Po pe Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV fought over the right of the sovereign to appoint bishops in his realm (lay investiture). Henry refused to acknowledge Gregory’s papacy, while the pope excommunicated the emperor. Lay investiture is said to be the most persistent source of clashes between the Christian Church and the nobility – bishops and abbots refused to have the king exercise control over their lands and other wealth. But it was necessary for the king to do it in order to assert his authority over his secular nobility (MSN Encarta n. pag.).The Crusades was one of the rare instances wherein the monarchy and the Christian Church joined forces. The Muslim conquest of Jerusalem spawned meant that the sacred places associated with the life of Christ would fall into the hands of a non-Christian power. West European Christians therefore launched the Crusades, a series of wars from 1095 to 1204 that were intended to recapture Jerusalem from Muslim rule. But th e Crusades proved to be a failure – Jerusalem returned to Islamic rule a century after the Fourth Crusade of 1202-1204 (MSN Encarta n. pag.).After the Crusades, the Christian Church was plagued with even more problems. Moral laxity and financial corruption were very rampant (MSN Encarta n. pag.). The clergy lived luxuriously, while ordinary people starved. Another anomaly that took place within the Christian Church was the selling of indulgences. Priests would sell people relics (hair or bones of saints) at very expensive prices. They would convince people into buying by claiming that possessing relics would immediately take them to Heaven upon their death.Some priests and religious leaders openly criticized the aforementioned irregularities in the Christian Church, a phenomenon which was later known as the Reformation. On October 31, 1517, German theologian Martin Luther published the Ninety-five Theses, a criticism on the selling of indulgences in order to raise funds for t he construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. His excommunication by Pope Leo X led to the formation of Protestantism. Others, such as Huldreich Zwingli and John Calvin, soon came up with their own Protestant sects (MSN Encarta n. pag.).The emergence of Protestantism prompted the Catholic Church to stage the Counterreformation in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Council of Trent (1545-1563), for one, clarified controversial doctrines and established guidelines on liturgy, church administration and education. The Catholic Church likewise came up with the Index of Forbidden Books and a new Inquisition. Missionaries were then sent to the Far East and North and South America in order to draw more converts to Roman Catholicism (MSN Encarta n. pag.).Christianity’s otherworldliness and promise of personal immortality made it appear as a suitable alternative to the chaotic Roman Empire. As a result, people wholeheartedly supported the Christian Church. Apart from being fait hful followers, they invested time and resources on the religion. The Christian Church, in the process, became even more powerful than secular nobility.But if power corrupts, then absolute power corrupts absolutely. Later Catholic leaders became morally decadent and corrupt. Consequently, concerned parties from the clergy established Protestantism. It is indeed very ironic that Christianity, once regarded as an alternative to a corrupt status quo, ended up being a corrupt institution itself. The Role of Christianity in the Restoration and Remaking of State Power Essay Thank you for reading this Sample!